A Sharper Brain at Any Age


You don’t need to be an official senior citizen to experience an increasing frequency of senior moments. With the demanding lifestyles, lack of exercise, nutritional deficiencies, insufficient sleep, oxidative stress, and toxicity, people at younger and younger ages are becoming seriously drained of brainpower. That is the reason why many people feel a need to improve memory and recall, particularly if they have misplacing items or forgetting things.

Citicoline – The Ultimate Brain Nutrient

Mounting scientific evidence has shown that brain nutrients provide the essential components to sustain healthy brain. One particular nutrient called citicoline (also known as CDP-Choline), a water soluble compound found in every cell in the body, is an exceptional brain nutrient. Without any known side-effects, Citicoline promises to protect our brains from the ravages of time and the environment.

While other brain nutrients may assists the brain in a very narrowly targeted way, Citicoline is unique in its ability to impact many vital brain functions and has several important mechanisms of action.

The primary structural components of cell membranes are the phospholipids. This is important because cell membranes surround and regulate the activity of every neuron as well as its internal structures. Membranes surround every cell in the body and play critical functions in regulating nutrients and other compounds that flow in and out of the cell. Phospholipids also serve as conductors in the transmission of nerve impulses.

Citicoline is involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and can be considered a brain phospholipids booster. Scientific research has shown that citicoline promotes brain metabolism by restoring phospholipids content in the brain. When the body absorbs Citicoline, it is broken down during digestion into two components: uridine and choline. Citicoline is then reformed in the brain and becomes a raw material for phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

Citicoline provides the key phospholipids components that become the building blocks for many important brain phospholipids, including phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). It has been shown to delay brain cell membrane damage and even to reverse some kinds of membrane damage.




Our brain requires a tremendous amount of energy. Although the brain accounts for less than two percent of a person’s weight, it consumes 20 percent of the body’s energy. Aging decreases the amount of available energy produced by the brain. Citicoline support brain health by increasing the activity of the mitochondria (the energy-producing furnaces in each cell) in neurons to produce the necessary energy for proper cell function. Researchers found that Citicoline significantly increased the levels of ATP; the high-energy compound produced by mitochondria, in both healthy and brain-damaged laboratory animals and decreased the area of damage in the latter.

Citicoline also promotes brain metabolism by enhancing the production of neurotransmitters, especially acetylcholine, a key player in memory and cognition. Declining acetylcholine results in loss of memory, loss of the ability to store new memories and emotional disturbances. Citicoline also supports the activity of nerves in the brain that respond to acetylcholine.

In older adults with cognitive impairment, supplementation with Citicoline improved measures of cognitive function including short and long-term memory, attention, perceptual-motor capacity, and behavioural and emotional control.




Evidence indicates that Citicoline can increase the levels of other neurotransmitters. Studies had shown increased levels in dopamine and norepinephrine. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter: it creates a feeling of well-being and pleasure; it is needed by the brain to cement new learning’s; and it is necessary in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Norepinephrine is involved in the fight-or-flight stress response and serves to increase attention, heart rate and muscle readiness.

Many human and animal studies have proven that Citicoline supplementation can be most helpful for many types of cognitive and brain disorders. It has demonstrated therapeutic effects with stroke patients and those with brain trauma. It also showed improvement in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and has been effective in alleviating Parkinson’s disease. For many of the elderly who have to contend with memory loss or cognitive impairment, Citicoline can make a huge difference in regaining their mental facilities as well as quality of life.

Clinical investigations have shown citicoline to be safe, even in children, and is highly bioavailable with oral dosing. Dosages used in clinical trials have varied from 250mg daily to 2,000mg daily.

A Healthy Brain, A Happy Life



The health of our brain is not separate from the overall health of our body. In order to maintain brain fitness, it is crucial to incorporate daily physical and mental exercise, stress management, a nutritious whole food diet, adequate rest and social interactions. Brain fitness and optimal cognitive functioning also requires supplementing with the latest superstar brain nutrient, Citicoline.

As we quest for effective ways to turn back the clock on aging, Citicoline is a proven safe, effective, multi-faceted brain energizer. For the elderly, it can help restore vital memories and recall. And for those with more serious brain impairment, Citicoline offers a therapeutic adjunct to help with their treatment and recovery. However, just about all of us can benefit from an extra brain boost.

In an age when our life span is growing longer, it is imperative to ensure our mental faculties remain as vital as our bodies. A healthy brain allows us to continue enjoying and learning from all of the experiences of life.





  1. Dispenza, Joe, “Evolve Your Brain,” Health Communications, 2007.
  2. Hurtado. O., Moro. M. A., Cárdenas, A., et al. “Neuroprotection afforded by prior citicoline administration in experimental brain ischemia: effects on glutamate transport.” Neurobiol Dis. 2005; 18:336–45.
  3. Kakihana, M., Kato, J., Narumi, S., et al. “CDP-choline: Distribution of radioactive CDP-choline and effect on glucose metabolism in the cerebral cortex of rats with 30-min cerebral ischemia.” Jpn Pharmacol Ther. 1985;13(9):241–53.
  4. Silveri, M. M., Dikan, J., Ross, A. J. et al. “Oral citicoline supplementation alters phosphorus metabolites in the anterior cingulated cortex [abstract].” In: Society for Neuroscience 37th annual meeting; 2007 Nov. 3–7; San Diego, CA: Neurology 2007, Session 30.
  5. Lopez, G., et al. “Effects of orally administered cytidine 5-diphosphate choline on brain phospholipids content” J Nutr Biochem. 1992;3(6):313–5.
  6. Alvarez, X. A., Laredo, M., Corzo, D., et al. “Citicoline improvises memory performance in elderly subjects.” Meth Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1997;19(3):201–10.
  7. Renshaw, P. F. FAQ on www.cognizin.com.*